There are a lot of people who are fat and obese and eat too much fat and
sugar while engaging in limited exercises or walking but are not diabetic or
don’t develop Type-2 Diabetes. Why? It is because their gut bacteria play a
role in it.
Andrey Morgun and Natalia Shulzhenko of Oregon State University and Giorgio
Trinchieri of the National Cancer Institute have found that a particular type
of gut microbe leads to white adipose tissue containing macrophage cells, large
cells that are part of the immune system, associated with insulin resistance.
Their findings have been published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.
"Our experiments and analysis predict that a high-fat/high-sugar diet
primarily acts in white adipose tissue (in the human body, white adipose tissue
is the main type of fat) by driving microbiota-related damage to the energy
synthesis process, leading to systemic insulin resistance," said Morgun,
associate professor of pharmaceutical sciences in the OSU College of Pharmacy.
"The so-called 'western diet', high in saturated fats and refined
sugars, is one of the primary factors. But gut bacteria have an important role
to play in mediating the effects of diet," Shulzhenko said.
Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) health condition that affects how
your body turns food into energy. Most of the food you eat is broken down into
sugar (also called glucose) and released into your bloodstream. When your blood
sugar goes up, it signals your pancreas to release insulin.
If you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t
use the insulin it makes as well as it should. When there isn’t enough insulin
or cells stop responding to insulin, too much blood sugar stays in your
bloodstream. Over time, that can cause serious health problems, such as heart
disease, vision loss, and kidney disease.